Vacuum sputtering is used to create coatings – conducting, insulating, wear-resistant, corrosion-resistant, erosion-resistant, anti-friction, extreme pressure, barrier, etc. on the surface of parts and tools. The process is used for decorative coatings, for example in the production of watches with gold coating and spectacle frames. One of the main processes of microelectronics, where application of conducting layers (metallization) is used. Vacuum sputtering is used to obtain optical coatings: anti-reflective, reflective, solar-blind.
Materials for sputtering are targets made of different materials, metals (titanium, aluminum, tungsten, molybdenum, iron, nickel, copper, graphite, chromium), their alloys, compounds (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3). Reactive gas such as acetylene (for carbon containing coatings); nitrogen, oxygen can be added into the technological environment. The chemical reaction on the surface of the substrate is activated by heat or ionization and dissociation of gas of some form of gas discharge.
Using the vacuum sputtering methods, you can obtain coatings with a thickness from several angstroms to several microns, usually after the application of coating, the surface does not require additional processing.